How Much Water Should A 2 Year Old Drink Australia Wine and Health – An Introduction

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Wine and Health – An Introduction

The use of wine and our strong belief in its health benefits, abstainers and teetotalers alike, are probably as old as wine itself, dating back to the earliest civilizations of the ancient world. In Mesopotamia ca. In the third millennium BC, the Babylonians believed that wine had medicinal and therapeutic effects and was considered so pure and free of contamination that it was preferred – along with beer – to water. In ancient Egypt over two thousand years BC, wine also became a common ingredient in “prescription drugs” to treat various ailments. Medicines were also formulated using other ingredients such as water and especially those obtained from medicinal plants.

And stories abound from the Far East where the Chinese laced wine with animal parts to concoct drugs to cure almost any ailment. Even Hippocrates, the father of medicine, who had a keen sense of the physiological and metabolic reactions in the human body, not only used wine as a prescription medicine in ancient Greece, but also turned it into an antiseptic to treat wounds.

The connection between wine and its healing and therapeutic effects grew stronger during different eras and from the Middle Ages to modern times. The association was so compelling that, following the declining mortality of convicts and migrants who were treated with wine aboard ships bound for Australia in the early nineteenth century, it gave rise to the establishment of vineyards and wineries by British doctors throughout the rest of the world. century. Many such wineries have grown into global enterprises responsible for some of the world’s largest wine output. For example, Lindemans and Penfolds were founded in the early 1840s by Dr. Henry J. Lindeman and Christopher R. Penfold.

But as wine became an integral part of religion from biblical times and the evils of alcohol took root in societies, wine, its health benefits, and its sociological effects became highly controversial and spawned the temperance movement in colonial America. In 1916, federal health authorities removed alcohol from United States Pharmacopeia (USP), “the official public body setting standards for all prescription and over-the-counter drugs and other health care products manufactured or sold in the United States.” Then in 1920, under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the Volstead Act was passed, making the manufacture, sale, importation, and distribution of alcohol illegal, which lasted until 1933, when the 21st Amendment was ratified, repealing national prohibition. During Prohibition, consumption of alcohol and homebrew for personal use was still permitted, although each state and often cities or counties were left to exercise additional control according to local needs. Wine for sacramental and medicinal purposes was also exempted. In Canada, the provinces began to introduce prohibition laws as early as 1917.

Much research on the health benefits of wine has been documented especially since the nineteenth century. However, the temperance movement was strong and in the 1980s gained renewed momentum in advocating the evils of alcohol on public health. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), now a very influential organization, was first founded in 1980. Then, during Ronald Reagan’s first term as president in the 1980s, First Lady Nancy Reagan launched the “Just Say No” drug awareness campaign, which naturally it also included alcoholic beverages. . Senator James Strom Thurmond, whose daughter was killed by a drunk driver in 1993 and whose wife later became addicted to alcohol, was a longtime staunch supporter of alcohol. He led the offensive responsible for the implementation (in 1988) of the now-famous warning on the labels of all wines sold in the U.S. The ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, now the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, or TTB) reads as follows:

GOVERNMENT WARNINGS: (1) According to the Surgeon General, women should not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy due to the risk of birth defects. (2) Consuming alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to drive or operate machinery and may cause health problems.

However, a major turning point occurred in 1991, when the French scientist Dr. Serge Renaud published his theory of the French paradox, which found that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. although they have a diet relatively rich in saturated fats, which are found, for example, in eggs, dairy products and especially cheese and meat. Renaud’s work catapulted sales of red wine in the US and renewed interest in the health benefits of wine when CBS aired its French paradox TV segment on 60 minutes the same year. The French Paradox, countless epidemiologic studies and laboratory studies and experiments such as those conducted by renowned cardiologist Kaiser-Permanente Dr. Arthur Klatsky, are a strong argument in favor of a J- or U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality. More specifically, these showed that moderate alcohol consumption resulted in lower mortality compared to abstainers and abstainers or heavy drinkers. Moderate consumption is also associated with lower morbidity (disease).

Moderate consumption is generally defined as 14 g of pure alcohol (ethanol) per day, which can be obtained from 148 ml (5 fl oz) of twelve percent alcohol wine, cautiously following the “two glasses a day” principle – or from 355 ml (12 fl oz) of five percent alcohol or 44 ml (1 ½ fl oz) of forty percent alcohol. And to enjoy and maximize the health benefits of moderate drinking, consumption must be daily and not averaged out, for example, by drinking seven times the recommended amount at one Saturday night party, and should be part of a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle including regular exercise.

Since 1999, wines intended for the American market could be labeled with the approval of TTB sa directional a health claim that instructs consumers to “consult [their] family doctor on the health benefits of wine consumption” or request the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) published Dietary Guidelines for Americans “to learn the health effects of wine consumption.” But Sen. Thurmond and temperance advocates such as the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) and MADD struck again, effectively forcing the TTB to defeat label guidance statements in 2003 on the grounds that they are inherently misleading and confusing and create impression. that the government endorsed the health benefits of alcohol consumption, which encouraged consumers to drink more. The whole premise of alcohol control, after all, is that wine, like beer and spirits, were considered intoxicating beverages and not medicines.

The wine industry, supported by such trade organizations as the Wine Institute and the American Vintners Association (AVA), lobbied federal agencies for more substantive health claims and reached some compromise. Henceforth, under the guidance of the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (FAA Act), the new TTB regulations provided in part that:

A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading if the claim is not true and sufficiently supported by scientific evidence; appropriately detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with moderate and heavy alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any level of alcohol consumption may cause health risks.

Such requirements have made it nearly impossible to get approval for health claims, directional or substantive, on labels or in advertising, especially if the claim must include a statement “warning the consumer that the statement should not encourage the consumption of alcohol for health reasons, . . . ” According to Richard Mendelson in From Darling to Demon: A Legal History of Wine in Americanot a single health claim has been approved by TTB since the effective date of the regulation.

But there is hope. The past decade has seen tremendous progress in the health benefits of moderate wine consumption. While we—alcohol advocates aside—have been thirsty for more good news about the role of wine in our health, the research is nonetheless far from conclusive given the often conflicting findings and the breadth of ailments, illnesses, and diseases that wine affects. believed to have effects. The list ranges from heart disease, stroke, cancer, dementia including Alzheimer’s, type 2 diabetes to arthritis and osteoporosis, and yes, even erectile dysfunction to name a few. Much attention, however, naturally focused on cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

In future articles, we’ll explore the science behind the complex interactions between wine and health that are so near and dear to our hearts—literally.

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