How Much Water Should A 2 Year Old Drink Uk Turritopsis Nutricula – A Living Fountain of Youth

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Turritopsis Nutricula – A Living Fountain of Youth

According to a report written by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo v Historia General y Natural de las Indias (1535) Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon (1474-1521), the first governor of Puerto Rico (then called Boriquien), attempted to discover the Fountain of Youth, a mystical spring that restored youth to anyone who drank its waters. Although the legend originally pointed to Ethiopia based on III. books of Herodotus’ Histories, when the Greek historian (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC) wrote in 1998 440 BC – “Ictyophagi [a term synonymous with coastal dwelling peoples] then again they asked the king about the length of life and diet of his people, and were told that most of them lived to be a hundred and twenty years old, while some even exceeded that age—they ate boiled meat and had nothing to drink but milk.

When the Ictyophagi expressed astonishment at the number of years, [Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis (570 BC-526 BC)] he led them to the fountain [in Ethiopia], where, when they had washed, they found their flesh all shiny and smooth, as if they had bathed in oil—and a fragrance like violets issued from the spring. The water was said to be so weak that nothing floats in it, not even wood or any lighter matter, but everything went to the bottom. If the description of this fountain is true, it would be their constant use of the water from it that makes them so long-lived.”[1] – later stories pointed to an island called Boinca located in Benini or Bimini, the westernmost quarter of the Bahamas.

With Boinca within reach, Ponce de Leon made two attempts to find the mystical fountain—one in 1513 and the other in 1521. Although he reportedly never found the fountain of youth, scientific evidence suggests he came tantalizingly close. If he had looked beneath the pristine Caribbean waters, he might have glimpsed a biologically immortal (the absence of an ever-increasing mortality rate due to increasing chronological age, as stated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law of Mortality), jellyfish, Turritopsis nutriculawhich, with its gelatinous composition (96% water, 3% salt/other compounds, and 1% carbon and nitrogen), its shiny, transparent bell-like shape, and its ability to revert to a younger state, is a living fountain of youth.

However, it was not until March 1992 that Giorgio Bavestrello, Christian Somner and Michele Sará published Two-way conversion in Turritopsis nutricula that this living fountain of youth has been revealed. Unlike other jellyfish, which usually die after spawning, Turritopsis nutriculathe tiny solitary organism, which feeds on brine shrimp, microscopic plankton, zooplankton and other tiny organisms, demonstrated “a unique case of ontogeny reversal (the development of an individual organism from embryo to adult).

Turritopsis nutricula, which originates from the Caribbean (but has spread to the world’s oceans) is currently the only known organism where transdifferentiation (irreversible conversion of cells from one differentiated type to another) takes place at the level of the organism, even though its individual parts by themselves are not capable of regeneration . Except Turritopsis nutricula transdifferentiation, a phenomenon which, according to CDM Davey, The theory of transdifferentiation (May 2, 2006) “is a very rare phenomenon in nature”, usually occurring at the organic level when certain organisms such as newts and salamanders regenerate missing parts. In summary, although cell type switching occurs in rare cases, usually when an organism regenerates an organ or part, it is an integral phase Turritopsis nutricula life cycle.

Due to its ability to reverse the aging process – returning from the mature adult stage to the immature polyp stage (its first stage of life) an unlimited number of times based on experimental results that showed a 100% transformation rate on a sample of 4000 Turritopsis nutricula medusae collected from the Gulf of Naples in the western Mediterranean from June 1993 to October 1994, regardless of exposure to adverse conditions or the type of stressor or its absence, as reported by Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero, Brigitte Aeschbach and Volker Schmid in Reversal of the life cycle: Jellyfish to polyp conversion and cell transdifferentiation Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) (Biological Bulletin, June 1996) – Turritopsis nutricula it has no natural limit to its lifespan, as it can effectively regenerate the entire body. Turritopsis nutricula basically uses transdifferentiation to deal with environmental stressors (e.g. increase/decrease in water temperature, decrease in salinity (salt content), lack of food and even aging (biological aging)) and to repair physical/internal damage (e.g. the body, especially its bell , are punched or cut off) regardless of phase. in addition Turritopsis nutricula it also engages in transdifferentiation after sexual activity regardless of whether stressful conditions exist.

Although Turritopsis nutricula the transdifferentiation ability makes him biologically immortal, he is not naturally immortal per se. Like any jellyfish, it is subject to predation and disease (especially during the immature plankton stage; as a result, most of those that succumb die before the jellyfish (adult) stage. However, since the latter poses a reduced risk, the population Turritopsis nutricula is currently rising uncontrollably, leading to Maria Pia Miglietta, Ph.D. from the Smithsonian Tropical Marine Institute to declare, “We’re looking at a worldwide silent invasion.”[2]

Jellyfish and Turritopsis nutricula life cycles:

A typical jellyfish has a limited lifespan ranging from a few hours for smaller species to several months or even years for larger species. From the moment of formation, jellyfish usually undergo aging with a natural death that eventually results after reproduction. Turritopsis nutriculaon the other hand, it avoids aging because transdifferentiation or reversion back to a younger state allows it to maintain effective DNA repair capabilities, maintain high levels of antioxidants and minimize the production of free radicals (harmful oxidants that damage the body’s cellular ability to respond to homeostatic imbalances (loss of balance), illness and other stress factors). This avoids apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transdifferentiation, which is a critical component Turritopsis nutricula the life cycle is described below:

1. Eggs develop in gonads (located in the stomach walls) of females Turritopsis nutricula.

2. Ripe eggs are fertilized by sperm released by the male in the water column Turritopsis nutricula.

3. The fertilized eggs develop into planula larvae, which settle on the sea floor and establish colonies of polyps called hydroids. Each polyp relies on tiny feeding tubes for nourishment.

4. Each polyp will then form a jellyfish bud(s).

5. Within a few days, the jellyfish (approximately 1 mm in diameter with eight evenly spaced tentacles) break off from the hydroid colony.

6. Within 18-30 days the jellyfish will reach sexual maturity depending on the average water temperature (18-22 days for an average temperature of 72ºF; 25-30 days for an average temperature of 68ºF). After reaching adulthood, Turritopsis nutricula the size of the jellyfish is approximately 4-5 mm and they consist of 80-90 tentacles.

7. Turritopsis nutricula it then engages in reverse metamorphosis and inverts or gradually withdraws its bell with “intense DNA replication occurring in exumbrella cells, radial canal endoderm, and subumbrellar plate endoderm” behind Reversal of the life cycle: Jellyfish to polyp conversion and cell transdifferentiation Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) (Biological Bulletin, June 1996).

8. Its tentacles and meogloea (middle layer) then shrink and are resorbed as Turritopsis nutricula regresses into a cyst or drop of tissue and settles on the substrate (the surface on which the organism grows or is attached).

9. Turritopsis nutricula the jellyfish then produce stolons that develop into polyps within days to form another hydroid colony. Then each polyp forms a jellyfish bud as the cycle continues from step 4 to repeat itself over and over due to sexual activity or exposure to stress, which increases DNA replication, a key prerequisite for the transdifferentiation process.

Conclusion:

Scientists and geneticists are currently studying Turritopsis nutricula discover its remarkable ability to reverse the aging process. Although the method Turritopsis nutricula use remains unknown, simplicity of the organism, genetic code (DNA could be structured to initiate a return to the polyp state when specific senescence, biological or stress conditions are met based on changes in chemical composition that could serve as a catalyst) potential partial (in which the fusion of adult embryonic stem (ES) cells with pluripotent stem (PS) cells would play a role in transdifferentiation) or complete retention of pluripotency (in which the entire stem cell population would consist of PS cells) may play a role. Turritopsis nutricula however, the transdifferentiation ability is not only dependent on stem cells. Instead, interstitial (differentiating stem cells) are also thought to play a role, along with differentiating secretory (exumbrella or bell), digestive/circulatory (gastrovascular), and/or striated muscle cells.

Should researchers eventually unravel the mystery of how Turritopsis nutricula Engaging in transdifferentiation, the secret of biological immortality could be achieved, ending the millennia-long and often perceived quixotic search for the fountain of youth. However, if such a development were to occur, a host of socio-economic, demographic, generational, and even ethical issues (would the government determine longevity through euthanasia in response to greater competition for limited, finite resources resulting from overpopulation?) issues that would ultimately have to be addressed would was overwhelming and perhaps impossible to resolve. Consequently, even if scientific research eventually solves the mystery of this living fountain of youth, humanity may, figuratively speaking, be prohibited from drinking its waters in order to maintain socioeconomic, generational, and moral stability, especially since the alternative could have significant unintended consequences. which could even lead to Armageddon and the extinction of mankind.

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