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Dyslexia – How to Recognize Dyslexia in Children
Deer momee and dadee
I’m not going to do any more exercise because the kids are beating me up. I can’t please help me
your sunshine David
David is not crazy. In fact, according to the rating, a few professionals are rather intelligent. Still, he certainly has a problem, and he shares his problem with millions of other children and adults. David is dyslexic.
The term “dyslexia” was introduced in 1884 by the German ophthalmologist R. Berlin. He coined it from the Greek words “dys”, meaning sick or difficult, and “lexis”, meaning word, and used it to describe a specific disorder of reading in the absence of pathological conditions in the visual organs. In a later publication in 1887, Berlin stated that dyslexia, “presumed right-handedness”, is caused by a left-sided brain lesion. He spoke of “word blindness” and detailed his observations of six patients with brain lesions who had full control of verbal communication but lost the ability to read.
In the following century, the narrow definition Berlin attached to the term dyslexia expanded. Today, the term dyslexia is often used to refer to a “normal” child – or adult – who appears to be much smarter than their reading and writing skills suggest. Although the term is commonly used to describe a severe reading problem, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice regarding the definition of severe or specific distinguishing features that distinguish dyslexia from other reading problems. Instead of getting into a tussle over a definition, the “symptoms” below can simply be used as signs that a child has a reading problem and therefore needs help.
Direction confusion can take many forms, from not knowing what’s left and right to not being able to read a map accurately, says Dr. Beve Hornsby in her book “Overcoming Dyslexia.” By the age of five, a child should know his left and right side, and by the age of seven, he should be able to distinguish a stranger. Directional confusion affects other concepts such as up and down, up and down, compass directions, keeping your place while playing games, being able to copy the movements of the gym teacher when he is facing you, and so on. As many as eight out of ten severely dyslexic children have directional confusion. The percentage is lower in patients with a mild condition, he says.
Directional confusion is the reason for reversing letters, whole words or numbers or for so-called mirror writing. The following symptoms indicate directional confusion:
* A dyslexic can reverse letters like ‘b’ and ‘d’ or ‘p’ and ‘q’ either when reading or writing.
* Can invert letters, read or write ‘n’ as ‘u’ or ‘m’ as ‘w’.
* Can read or write words like “no” for “on” or “rat” for “tar”.
* Can read or write 17 for 71.
* Can mirror write letters, numbers and words.
Many dyslexics have difficulty with sequencing, i.e. perceiving something in a sequence and also remembering the sequence. Naturally, this will affect their ability to read and spell correctly. After all, every word consists of letters in a certain order. In order to read, we need to perceive the letters in order and also remember what word is represented by the sequence of the respective letters. By simply changing the order of the letters in ‘name’ it can become ‘middle’ or ‘amen’.
Below are a few symptoms of dyslexia that indicate difficulty with sequencing:
* When reading, a dyslexic may put letters in the wrong order, read “felt” as “left” or “act” as “cat”.
* May put the words in the wrong order and read “there are” as “there are”.
* May omit letters ie read or write ‘cat’ for ‘cart’ or ‘wet’ for ‘went’.
Dyslexics may also have difficulty remembering the order of the alphabet, strings of numbers such as telephone numbers, months of the year, seasons and events of the day. It can also be difficult for younger children to remember the days of the week. Some are unable to repeat longer words orally without getting the syllables in the wrong order, for example words like “preliminary” and “statistical”.
DIFFICULTIES WITH SMALL WORDS
A common comment from parents of kids who struggle with reading is, “He’s so sloppy, he gets the big difficult words, but he keeps making silly mistakes on all the little ones.” A poor reader will certainly get stuck on difficult words, but many seem to make things worse by making mistakes in simple words they should be able to master – like “if”, “to”, “and”.
It is important to note that this is very common and is not a sign that the child is particularly careless or lazy.
Research has revealed a dramatic link between abnormal speech development and learning disabilities such as dyslexia. The following are just a few examples:
* A 1970 study by Dr. Renate Valtin from Germany, based on one hundred pairs of dyslexic and normal children, found signs of retardation in speech development and a higher frequency of speech disorders in dyslexics than in normal children.
* According to Dr. Beve Hornsby, author of “Overcoming Dyslexia,” about 60 percent of dyslexics were late speakers.
* In her book “Learning Disabilities,” author Janet Lerner states, “Language problems of one form or another underlie many learning disabilities. Oral language disorders include poor phonological awareness, delayed speech, grammatical or syntax disorders, deficits in vocabulary acquisition, and poor understanding of spoken language.”
In most cases, a baby should be able to understand simple words and commands by nine months. He should say his first words from about a year old. By two, he should have a vocabulary of up to 200 words and use simple two-word phrases such as “drink milk”. By three, he should have a vocabulary of up to 900 words and use complete sentences without missing words. He can still mix up consonants, but his speech should be understandable to strangers. By four, he should be able to speak fully, although he may still make grammatical errors.
If a child is speaking immaturely or is still making unexpected grammatical errors in speech at age five, this should alert parents to possible later reading problems. Parents should take immediate steps to improve their child’s speech.
DIFFICULTY WITH HANDWRITING
Some dyslexics suffer from poor handwriting skills. The word “dysgraphia” is often used to describe difficulties in this area and is characterized by the following symptoms:
* Generally illegible font.
* Discrepancies in letters.
* A mix of upper/lower case or block/italic letters.
* Irregular letter sizes and shapes.
* Unfinished letters.
* Try to use writing as a communication tool.
OTHER SYMPTOMS OF DYSLEXIA
* Creates a story based on illustrations that has nothing to do with the text.
* Reads very slowly and hesitantly.
* Loses line or page orientation when reading, misses lines, or re-reads previously read lines.
* Tries to pronounce the letters of a word, but then is unable to say the correct word. For example, it reads the letters “cat” but then says “cold.”
* Reads with poor understanding.
* Remembers little of what he reads.
* Spells words as they sound, for example ‘rite’ for ‘correct’.
* Ignores punctuation. He may omit periods or commas and does not see the need for capital letters.
* Bad copying from the board.
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