My 2 Month Old Got Shots And Has A Fever Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Explained

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Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Explained

WHAT IS VIRAL HEPATITIS?

Viral hepatitis: is the inflammation and necrosis of the liver caused by a virus or group of viruses.

There are other types of hepatitis, including hepatotoxic and drug-related hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis.

Types of viral hepatitis

There are many types of viral hepatitis

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G etc

HEPATITIS B: It is caused by hepatitis B virus. A hepadna DNA virus with a partially double-stranded DNA genome.

HEPATITIS C: This is a serious and often silent liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus, a single-stranded RNA virus. At least six major genotypes have been identified.

TRANSMISSION MODE

Hepatitis B and C viruses are transmitted by contact with infected blood or blood products

For example, through contaminated needles (including unsterilized tattoo needles), accidental needle sticks in healthcare workers and unprotected sex, sharing nail clippers, razors or toothbrushes.

-Blood transfusions without screening.

OTHER MODES OF TRANSMISSION

It can also be present in saliva, semen and vaginal secretions and through positive HbsAg from mothers to children (maternal-neonatal transmission). Hepatitis B is common in homosexuals and intravenous drug users, but most cases are the result of heterosexual transmission. The incubation period for hepatitis B is 6 weeks to 6 months (average 12 to 14 weeks). Hepatitis C is between 6 and 7 weeks and the clinical disease is usually mild, usually asymptomatic.

Signs and symptoms

Hepatitis C has been called “the silent killer” because the virus often hides in the body for years, escaping detection as it attacks the liver. Since most people have no warning signs of hepatitis C (or don’t know how or when they became infected).

They do not seek treatment until many years later. By the time hepatitis C symptoms appear or a diagnosis is made, the damage is usually already underway.

If symptoms occur, they can be mild or severe. Among the most common complaints are:

fatigue

fever

Muscle or joint pain

Little appetite

nausea

Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen

Dark yellow gold

vomiting

Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)

Itchy skin

Pale stools, easy bleeding, easy bruising.

Yellow eyes: a symptom

Acute and chronic hepatitis

ACUTE HEPATITIS, as the name suggests, means that the disease is sudden and short-lived, occurring between the first two weeks and six months of infection.

In up to 25% of cases, the virus clears from the body on its own without treatment.

CHRONIC HEPATITIS:

For hepatitis to change from an acute state to a chronic state, there must be persistent infection after six months and often much longer.

It is estimated that between 75% and 85% of people with acute hepatitis develop a chronic infection.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis

Unless symptoms develop, people with hepatitis C usually don’t know they have the infection until it’s discovered during routine blood tests.

A simple blood test can tell if one is infected or not.

Routine tests include:

HbsAg tests

Anti-HCV tests.

Further tests and trials are performed for individuals who test positive in previous tests.

THE COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS

Up to one in four people with chronic hepatitis C develop cirrhosis or severe scarring of the liver.

These people may have additional symptoms, including swelling of the legs and abdomen, spider-like blood vessels, and a build-up of toxins in the bloodstream that can lead to brain damage.

People with chronic hepatitis B, especially when HBV infection is acquired early in life and viral replication persists, are at substantial risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Chronic hepatitis C is also a leading cause of liver cancer.

TREATMENTS

Treatments have improved greatly over the years. Current medications are more effective at eliminating the virus from the body and have fewer side effects.

The type of treatment you receive will depend on the genotype, or strain, of your hepatitis, as well as the damage to your liver.

TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS B

The goal of chronic hepatitis B treatment is to control the virus and prevent it from damaging the liver. This starts with regular monitoring for signs of liver disease.

Antiviral medications can help, but not everyone can take them.

TREATMENTS: CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

Medicines

Some of the newer medications for hepatitis C genotypes 1, 2, and 3 include: Daclatasvir (Daklinza); Elbasvir/grazoprevir (Zepatier); Ledipasvir (Harvoni); Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with dasabuvir tablets (Viekira Pak); Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (Epclusa); Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Daclatasvir (Daklinza) with sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); and Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (Epclusa).

injectables

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all babies at birth and for adults

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEPATITIS C

Currently, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

Avoid any contact with body fluids and protect yourself with protective measures.

STD FACTS

Chlamydia: This is a common STD that can lead to infertility if left untreated. Clean up quickly with antibiotics. But it often goes unnoticed because the symptoms are vague or absent.

Women with symptoms may notice

– An abnormal vaginal discharge;

– A painful urination.

Symptoms in men may include:

A download of theirs

penis;

A burning sensation when

to urinate (dysuria)

Pain and swelling in one

or both testicles

Can chlamydia be cured?

Yes, chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. When taken correctly, it will stop the infection and may decrease your chances of complications later on.

GONORRHEA

Gonorrhea spreads easily and can cause infertility in both men and women.

Antibiotics can stop the infection.

– Burning during urination and discharge.

– Later, the infection may cause skin rashes or spread to the joints and blood.

In men: discharge from the penis, swollen testicles.

In women: vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, spots. Symptoms can be mild and easily confused with a urinary or vaginal infection.

SYPHILIS

Most people do not notice the early symptoms of syphilis. Without treatment, it can lead to paralysis, blindness and death.

Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.

Signs and Symptoms: The first sign is usually a firm, round, painless sore on the genitals or anus. The disease spreads through direct contact with this wound.

Later, there may be a rash on the soles, palms, or other parts of the body, as well as swollen glands, fever, hair loss, or fatigue. In the late stage, damage occurs to organs such as the heart, brain, liver, nerves and eyes.

Herpes simplex virus type 2

Most cases of genital herpes are caused by a virus called HSV-2. It is highly contagious and can be spread through intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore.

There is no cure. But antiviral medications can make flare-ups less frequent and help clear up symptoms more quickly.

Symptoms: Fluid-filled blisters that form painful, crusty sores on the genitals, anus, thighs, or buttocks. It can spread to the lips by oral contact.

HIV/AIDS

The HIV virus weakens the body’s defense against infection. HIV is spread through unprotected sex, sharing needles or being born to an infected mother. It may not cause symptoms for years, so a blood test is the best way to know its condition.

Timely treatment is important to help prevent serious illness. Many have no symptoms, but some people experience temporary flu-like symptoms a month or two after infection: swollen glands (see here), fever, headaches and fatigue. Canker sores can also occur in the mouth.

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR HIV

Although there is no cure for HIV, there are medications that can suppress the amount of virus that multiplies inside the body. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from progressing to AIDS.

trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite that spreads during sexual contact. It can be cured with prescription drugs.

Signs and symptoms in men: Most men have no obvious symptoms. Some develop a slight discharge or mild burning during urination.

Signs and symptoms in women: Women may develop a yellow-green discharge with a strong odor, vaginal itching, or pain during sex or urination. Symptoms usually begin five to 28 days after acquiring the parasite.

STD COMPLICATIONS

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea.

It occurs when bacteria spread to infect the uterus and other female reproductive organs. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent damage to a woman’s fertility.

Signs and symptoms: lower abdominal pain, fever, unusual discharge, painful intercourse, painful urination and spotting. However, there are often no warning signs.

Who is at risk for STDs?

Anyone who is sexually active is at risk for an STD, regardless of gender, race, social class, or sexual orientation.

That said, teens and young adults get STDs more easily than older people.

Can virgins get STDs?

Yes, they can. Many STDs are spread through any type of sexual activity, including skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. This is especially true for STDs that cause genital lesions or sores.

Prevention of STDs

The best way to avoid an STD is to abstain from any sexual contact.

Do not share sharp objects and needles.

Avoid using unsterilized objects.

Make the hyena a priority.

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